Woodcut

First seen in China around the 1st century, wood engraving or xylography is the oldest engraving technique known. Woodcut is achieved by carving into a block of wood (generally a plank of wood, as opposed to an end-grain block). The tools used include knives, chisels, and gouges. Some artists have used these tools so as to disguise the natural marks that knives and gouges make in an attempt to emulate the lines of engravings or of pen and ink drawings. Albrecht Dürer is one of the most prominent artists who used this technique, and the illustration on the left is his View of Nuernberg, late 15th and early 16th centuries.